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November 29, 2016
Source: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2017;330:115-156.
Authors: I. Truxová, M. Hensler, P. Skapa, M. J. Halaska, J. Laco, A. Ryška, R. Špíšek, J. Fučíková.
Owing to their central role in the initiation and regulation of antitumor immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) have been widely tested for use in cancer immunotherapy. Despite several encouraging clinical applications, existing DC-based immunotherapy efforts have yielded inconsistent results. Recent work has identified strategies that may allow for more potent DC-based vaccines, such as the combination with antitumor agents that have the potential to synergistically enhance DC functions. Selected cytotoxic agents may stimulate DCs either by directly promoting their maturation or through the induction of immunogenic tumor cell death. Moreover, they may support DC-induced adaptive immune responses by disrupting tumor-induced immunosuppressive mechanisms via selective depletion or inhibition of regulatory subsets, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells and/or regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here, we summarize our current knowledge on the capacity of anticancer chemotherapeutics to modulate DC phenotype and functions and the results of ongoing clinical trials evaluating the use of DC-based immunotherapy in combination with chemotherapy in cancer patients.